Tag Archives: offensive cyber capabilities

Offensive Cyber Capabilities: To What Ends?

Here’s the abstract of the paper I wrote with Herb Lin for Cycon X:

There is a growing interest in the use of offensive cyber capabilities (OCC) among states. Despite the growing interest in these capabilities, little is still known about the nature of OCC as a tool of the state. This research therefore aims to understand if (and how) offensive cyber capabilities have the potential to change the role of military power. Drawing on a wide range of cases, we argue that these capabilities can alter the manner in which states use their military power strategically in at least four ways. OCC are not particularly effective in deterring adversary military action, except when threatened to be used by states with a credible reputation. However, they do have value in compellence. Unlike conventional capabilities, the effects of offensive cyber operations do not necessarily have to be exposed publicly, which means the compelled party can back down post-action without losing face thus deescalating conflict. The potential to control the reversibility of effect of an OCC by the attacker may also encourage compliance. OCC also contribute to the use of force for defensivepurposes, as it could provide both a preemptive as well as preventive strike option. Finally, its symbolic value as a ‘prestige weapon’ to enhance ‘swaggering’ remains unclear, due to its largely non-material ontology and transitory nature.

Read the full paper here: https://ccdcoe.org/sites/default/files/multimedia/pdf/Art%2003%20Offensive%20Cyber%20Capabilities.%20To%20What%20Ends.pdf


Organizational Integration of Offensive Cyber Capabilities: A Primer on the Benefits and Risks

Below you can find the abstract of the paper I’ll present at the 9th International Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon 2017) in Tallinn, Estonia. The paper will be published after the conference.

Organizational Integration has become a key agenda point for policy makers as governments continue to change and create new organizations to address the cyber threat. Passing references on this topic, however, far outnumber systematic treatments. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential effects of organizational integration of offensive cyber capabilities (OIOCC).  I argue that OIOCC may lead to three key benefits: enhance interaction efficiency, stimulate knowledge transfer and improve resource allocation. There are however several negative effects of integration too, which have so far received little attention. OIOCC may lead to an intensification of the cyber security dilemma, increase costs in the long run, and impel – what I call – ‘cyber mission creep’. Though the benefits seem to outweigh the risks, I note that ignoring the potential negative effects may be dangerous – as activity is more likely to go beyond the foreign-policy goals of governments and intrusions are more likely to trigger a disproportionate response by the defender.