Journal Articles

‘Cyber campaigns and strategic outcomes’ (with Richard Harknett), Journal of Strategic Studies, [link]

‘U.S. cyber strategy of persistent engagement & defend forward: implications for the alliance and intelligence collection’, Intelligence and National Security, [link]

‘Mapping the Known Unknowns of Cybersecurity Education: A Review of Syllabi on Cyber Conflict and Security’ (with Arthur Laudrain and Trey Herr), Journal of Political Science Education, [link]

‘Operational decision-making for cyber operations: In Search of a Model’, (with JD Work), Cyber Defense Review, [link]


‘Cyber deterrence is dead. Long live cyber deterrence!’ (with Stefan Soesanto), Council on Foreign Relations: Net Politics, [link]

‘Mapping the Known Unknowns of Cybersecurity Education’, (with Trey Herr and Arthur Laudrain), Council on Foreign Relations: Net Politics, [link]


Journal Articles

‘Determinants of Cyber Readiness’ (with Christos Makridis), Journal of Cyber Policy, [link]

‘Werkt de Nederlandse Wijzende Vinger bij Cyberaanvallen?,’ Clingendael Spectator [link]

‘Verboden vruchten in het (Binnen)hof. De opkomst van ‘deepfakes’, Atlantisch Perspectief, 1, [link]

Reports / Conference Publications

‘A Transatlantic Dialogue on Military Cyber Operations,’ (with Monica Kaminska and Robert Chesney), Workshop Report, [link]

‘NATO Members’ Organizational Path Towards Conducting Offensive Cyber Operations: A Framework for Analysis’, CyCon, NATO CCD COE Publications: Tallinn [link]

Cyber Conflict in Political Science: A Review of Methods and Literature’, (with Robert Gorwa), ISA Annual Convention, Toronto, [link] [pdf]


‘NATO Allies Need to Come to Terms with Offensive Cyber Operations,’ Lawfare, [link]

‘Cyber Command’s Strategy Risks Friction with Allies,’ Lawfare, [link]

‘There are too many Red Lines in Cyberspace’ Lawfare, [link]


Journal Articles

‘The Strategic Value of Offensive Cyber Operations,’ Strategic Studies Quarterly, [pdf] [link] ***Most downloaded SSQ article for 2019 (81,000 copies)

‘Cyber: People, People, People,’ Atlantisch Perspectief, 6 [pdf] [link]

‘Integrating Offensive Cyber Capabilities: Meaning, dilemmas, and assessment,’ Defence Studies, [link]

‘A Matter of Time: On the Transitory Nature of Cyber Weapons,’ Journal of Strategic Studies, 1-24, [pdf] [link] ***Awarded the annual 2018 Amos Perlmutter Prize

Book Chapters

‘A Strategic Assessment of the U.S. Cyber Command Vision’ (with Herbert Lin), in Bytes, Bombs, and Spies: The Strategic Dimensions of Offensive Cyber Operations, eds. H. Lin and A. Zegart, Brookings Institution Press, Washington DC, [link]

Reports / Conference Publications

‘Offensive Cyber Capabilities: To What Ends?’ (with Herbert Lin), eds. T. Minárik, R. Jakschis, L. Lindström, CyCon, NATO CCD COE Publications: Tallinn, [pdf] [link]

‘Countering the Proliferation of Offensive Cyber Capabilities,’ (With Trey Herr and Robert Morgus), Global Commission on the Stability of Cyberspace Report, [pdf] [link]

‘The Continuities and Discontinuities of Cyber History,’ Cyber Conflict Studies Association, State of the Field Report on Cyber Conflict 2017 (with Jason Healey), [pdf] [link]

‘Determinants of Cyber Readiness’ (with Christos Makridis), Global Forum on Cyber Expertise (GFCE) Annual Meeting Singapore, [pdf] [link]


‘What is Absent from the US Cyber Command Vision,’(with Herbert Lin), Lawfare, [link]

‘What Did the NATO Summit Accomplish With Respect to Cyber Issues?’, Council on Foreign Relations: Net Politics [link]

‘US Cyber Command: An Assiduous Actor, Not a Warmongering Bully,’ The Cipher Brief, [link]

‘The Netherlands just revealed its cybercapacity. So what does that mean?’ Washington Post: Monkey Cage, [link]

‘Why We are Unconvinced NATO’s Cyber Policy Is More Aggressive, and That’s a Good Thing,’ (With Daniel Moore), Council on Foreign Relations: Net Politics, [link]


Reports / Conference Publications

‘Organisational Integration of Offensive Cyber Capabilities: A Primer on the Benefits and Risks,’ eds. H. Roigas, R. Jakschis, L. Lindstrom, and T. Minarik, CyCon, NATO CCD COE Publications: Tallinn, [pdf] [link]

‘Contesting Cyber,’ (with James Shires) New America Report, [pdf] [link]


‘When Routine Isn’t Enough: Why military cyber commands need creativity at the human level,’ War on the Rocks, [link]

‘The Word Cyber Now Means Everything – and Nothing at All,’ (with James Shires), Slate, [link]

‘ARPANET: Where did it all start again?’ (with James Shires) New America Cybersecurity Initiative, C2B Log, [link]

‘Cyber Exceptionalism,’ (with James Shires) New America Cybersecurity Initiative, C2B Log, [pdf] [link]

‘Europe Slowly starts to talk more openly about offensive cyber operations,’ Council on Foreign Relations: Net Politics, [link]


Journal articles

‘Noblesse Oblige: The Transatlantic Security Dynamic and Dutch Involvement in the JSF’ (with Giles Scott-Smith), International Journal, 68(1):40-69, [link]

‘Introduction, a Re-examination of Private Military and Security Companies,’ (with James Barnett) St. Antony’s International Review, 9(2):2-8, [pdf] [link]

‘Behind the Facade: Explaining US Elite Positions on Cyber Security,’ Georgetown Security Studies Review, 2015, 3(2):84-103, [link]


‘How Much Does a Cyber Weapon Cost? Nobody Knows,’ Council on Foreign Relations,Net Politics, [link]

‘When Naming Cyber Threat Actors Does More Harm Than Good,’ Council on Foreign Relations, Net Politics, [link]